All Publications with Heffernan Authorship

All published or pending work with Neil Heffernan as an author,

conducted using E-TRIALS or its predecessor, the ASSISTments Testbed

Studies Comparing Feedback to "Business as Usual" // 3

  • Kelly, K., Heffernan, N., Heffernan, C., Goldman, S., Pellegrino, G. & Soffer, D. (2013). Estimating the Effect of Web-Based Homework. In Lane, Yacef, Motow & Pavlik (Eds) The Artificial Intelligence in Education Conference. Springer-Verlag. pp. 824-827. [PDF][Study Summary] University of Illinois Chicago

  • Kehrer, P., Kelly, K. & Heffernan, N. (2013). Does Immediate Feedback While Doing Homework Improve Learning. In Boonthum-Denecke, Youngblood (eds) Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference, FLAIRS 2013, St. Pete Beach, Florida. May 22-24, 2013. AAAI Press 2013. 542-545. [PDF][Study Summary]

  • Mendicino, M., Razzaq, L. & Heffernan, N. T. (2009). Improving Learning from Homework Using Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Journal of Research on Technology in Education (JRTE). 41(3), 331-346. [PDF][Study Summary] West Virginia University

Studies Comparing Types of Feedback // 8

  • Inventado, P., Scupelli, P., Ostrow, K., Heffernan, N., Almeda, V., & Slater, S. (2018). Contextual Factors Affecting Hint Utility. International Journal of STEM Education, 5(1), 13. [PDF][Study Summary]

  • Singh, R., Saleem, M., Pradhan, P., Heffernan, C., Heffernan, N., Razzaq, L. Dailey, M. O'Connor, C. & Mulchay, C. (2011). Feedback during Web-Based Homework: The Role of Hints In Biswas et al (Eds) Proceedings of the Artificial Intelligence in Education Conference 2011. 328–336. [PDF][Study Summary]

  • Razzaq, L., Heffernan, N. T., Lindeman, R. W. (2007). What Level of Tutor Interaction is Best? In Luckin & Koedinger (Eds.) Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. IOS Press. 222-229. [PDF][Study Summary]

  • Razzaq, L. & Heffernan, N.T. (2006). Scaffolding vs. hints in the Assistment system. In Ikeda, Ashley & Chan (Eds.). Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Springer-Verlag: Berlin. 635-644. [PDF][Study Summary] Worcester Polytechnic Institute

  • Razzaq, L. & Heffernan, N. (2010). Hints: Is It Better to Give or Wait to be Asked? In Aleven, V., Kay, J & Mostow, J. (Eds) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS2010) Part 1. Springer. 349-358. [PDF][Study Summary] Worcester Polytechnic Institute

  • Shrestha, P., Wei, X., Maharjan, A., Razzaq, L., Heffernan, N.T., & Heffernan, C., (2009). Are Worked Examples an Effective Feedback Mechanism During Problem Solving? In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. 1294-1299. [PDF][Study Summary]

  • Kim, R, Weitz, R., Heffernan, N. & Krach, N. (2009). Tutored Problem Solving vs. “Pure”: Worked Examples In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. 3121-3126. [PDF][Study Summary] Seton Hall University, Carnegie Mellon University, and Albert Einstein College of Medicine

  • Pardos, Z., Dailey, M. & Heffernan, N. (2011). Learning what works in ITS from non-traditional randomized controlled trial data. The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. 21, 47-63. [PDF][Study Summary]

  • Razzaq, L. & Heffernan, N. (2009). To Tutor or Not to Tutor: That is the Question. In Dimitrova, Mizoguchi, du Boulay & Graesser (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2009 Artificial Intelligence in Education Conference. IOS Press. 457-464. [PDF][Study Summary]

Studies Comparing Socio-Emotional Interventions // 3

  • Kelly, K., Heffernan, N., D'Mello, S., Namias, J., & Strain, A. (2013). Adding Teacher-Created Motivational Video to an ITS. Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS 2013). 503-508. [PDF][Study Summary] University of Notre Dame

  • Ostrow, K. & Heffernan, N. T. (2014). Testing the Multimedia Principle in the Real World: A Comparison of Video vs. Text Feedback in Authentic Middle School Math Assignments. The International Educational Data Mining Conference. [PDF][Study Summary] Worcester Polytechnic Institute

  • Ostrow, K. & Heffernan, N. T. (2015). The Role of Student Choice Within Adaptive Tutoring. In Conati, Heffernan, Mitrovic & Verdejo (eds) The 17th Proceedings of the Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Madrid, Spain. Springer. 752-755. [PDF][Study Summary] Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Studies Assessing Parental Intervention // 1

  1. Broderick, Z., O’Connor, C., Mulcahy, C., Heffernan, N. & Heffernan, C. (2011). Increasing Parent Engagement in Student Learning Using an Intelligent Tutoring System. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 22(4), 523-550. Chesapeake, VA: AACE. [PDF][Longer Version][Study Summary] Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Assessing the Automatic Reassessment and Relearning System (ARRS) // 1

  • Soffer, D., Das, V., Pellegrino, G., Goldman, S., Heffernan, N., Heffernan, C.,& Dietz, K. (2014). Improving Long-term Retention of Mathematical Knowledge through Automatic Reassessment and Relearning. American Educational Research Association (AERA 2014) Conference. Division C - Learning and Instruction / Section 1c: Mathematics. Nominated for the best poster of the session. [PDF][Poster][Study Summary] University of Illinois Chicago

Studies Comparing Instructional Approaches // 3

  1. Sao Pedro, M., Gobert, J., Heffernan, N. & Beck, J. (2009). In N.A. Taathen & H. van Rjin (Eds.) Comparing Pedagogical Approaches for Teaching the Control of Variables Strategy. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF][Study Summary] Worcester Polytechnic Institute

  2. Ostrow, K., Heffernan, N.T. & Heffernan, C. (2015). Blocking vs., Interleaving: A Conceptual Replication Examining Single-Session Effects within Middle School Math Homework. In Conati, Heffernan, Mitrovic & Verdejo (Eds) The 17th Proceedings of the Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Madrid, Spain. Springer. pp. 388-347 (acceptance rate 28%). [PDF] [Study Summary] Carleton College

  3. Lang, C., Heffernan, N., Ostrow, K., & Wang, Y. (2015). The Impact of Incorporating Student Confidence Items into an Intelligent Tutor: A Randomized Controlled Trial. In Santos, Boticario, Romero, Pechenizkiy, Merceron, Mitros, Luna, Mihaescu, Moreno, Hershkovitz, Ventura, & Desmarais (eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2015). Madrid, Spain. June 26-29. 144-149. [PDF][Study Summary] Harvard University

  • Xiong, X. & Beck, J. (2014). A Study of Exploring Different Schedules of Spacing and Retrieval Interval on Mathematics Skills in ITS Environment. In Stefan Trausan-Matu, et al. (Eds) The Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring 2014. LNCS 8474. 504-509. [PDF][Study Summary] Worcester Polytechnic Institute

  • Xiong, X., Wang, Y., & Beck, J. B. (2015). Improving students' long-term retention performance: a study on personalized retention schedules. InProceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Learning Analytics And Knowledge. ACM. 325-329. [PDF][Study Summary] Worcester Polytechnic Institute